了解眩晕的原因

晕眩和/或平衡丧失是第二个最常见的投诉医生,它是75岁以上患者的最常见的投诉。您的头晕可能只是一种呼气体验,或者可能是一个症状重新灼热的平衡条件称为眩晕。

根据国家卫生研究院,70%的美国人将在他们生活中的某些时候遇到头晕,约有40%的人口将报告他们的生命中至少有一次眩晕。女性的眩晕患病率更大,随着年龄的增长而增加,但它可能发生在所有年龄段的人中,包括儿童。眩晕作为一个条件不会伤害你,但随附的症状会影响你的整体福祉。在轻度案件中,它可能会导致疲劳,在工作中挣扎,令人沮丧。在更严重的情况下,它可能导致难以走路和站立,它可能导致突然跌倒和伤害。

识别您体验的症状可能会帮助您确定您拥有的哪种类型的眩晕,并且它将有助于您的听力和平衡护理提供者确定您的眩晕的特定原因。某些类型的眩晕具有一定的原因,大多数均衡障碍通常分为两类:

<ul>
    <li>Acute attacks of dizziness or a general loss of balance that may last a few seconds or a few hours</li>
    <li>A persistent sense of imbalance, unsteadiness, or what some people refer to as a loss of sure-footedness</li>
</ul>

那是什么原因导致眩晕?

通常,由于前庭系统中的紊乱,由于前庭系统中的紊乱,因此发生眩晕的结果,内耳中的一个区域负责将物体保持在焦点,因为身体移动。可能导致眩晕的特异性前庭疾病包括良性阵发性位置眩晕(BPPV),Ménière的疾病,前庭神经炎和耳毒性(摄入对您内耳有毒的化学物质)。每种疾病都有自己独特的原因,效果和治疗。

<ul>
    <li><strong>BPPV</strong> is the most common type of vertigo and makes up approximately 50 percent of vertigo complaints, particularly in older individuals. With BPPV, tiny particles made up of calcium and protein form and break off into the inner ear canals. Head movements cause these particles to shift the inner ear’s nerve hairs, which send signals to the brain that initiate the sensation of vertigo. 

    BPPV is characterized by bouts of vertigo that can be accompanied by weak facial muscles, reduced cognitive function, and hearing loss. Common causes of this type of vertigo include head injuries, infection, and inner-ear degeneration due to aging. </li>

    <li><strong>Ménière’s disease</strong> is an inner-ear disorder believed to result from excess fluid and changing pressure in the inner ear. Ménière’s typically affects only one ear and is characterized by sudden vertigo attacks that sometimes occur after a brief period of muffled hearing or tinnitus. You may also have a feeling of fullness in the ear, as well as prolonged hearing loss that may be temporary or permanent. 

    Ménière’s is considered a chronic condition that usually affects people between the ages of 40 and 60, but it can occur in people of all ages. Causes of Ménière’s include constricted blood vessels, viral infections, allergies, autoimmune reactions, and genetic predispositions. There is no cure, but medications to treat vertigo, and other treatments to balance the fluids in the body, are usually effective at alleviating symptoms.</li>

    <li><strong>Vestibular neuritis</strong> is an inner-ear disorder usually related to infections that cause inflammation in the ear. Most of the inflammation happens around nerves that are crucial to the body’s sense of balance, and once inflamed, these nerves are unable to send the correct sensory information to the brain. This causes vertigo, as well as other vision and hearing disturbances. The infection takes hold suddenly and can occur at any time.

    Treatment for this type of vertigo usually includes relieving nausea and dizziness while healing the infected area with antibiotics, steroids, or antiviral drugs. Rarely, vertigo symptoms will become chronic and persist for several months. </li>

    <li><strong>Ototoxicity</strong> is a poisoning of the inner ear due to exposure to or ingestion of medications or chemicals that damage the vestibular nerves. High doses or long-term use of certain antibiotics, antidepressants, loop diuretics, pain relievers, and prescription or over-the-counter medications can cause ototoxicity. Symptoms of an ototoxic infection include vertigo, blurred or bouncing vision, headaches, fatigue, and nausea. 

    There’s no standard treatment for ototoxicity because there are more than 750 potentially ototoxic chemicals, and discovering the exact toxic chemical can be difficult. Treating vertigo caused by ototoxicity usually focuses on therapies to help restore balance until you are able to process the chemicals and pass them out of your body.</li>
</ul>